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The main advantages and disadvantages of gel batteries and lead-acid batteries


Time:

2021-06-07

When buying high-energy gel batteries and lead-acid batteries, such a screen often appears. Whether to buy high-energy gel batteries or lead-acid batteries, it seems that the functions of these two products are very similar, so when the merchants buy There will be some hesitation about which one to buy.

When buying high-energy gel batteries and lead-acid batteries, such a screen often appears. Whether to buy high-energy gel batteries or lead-acid batteries, it seems that the functions of these two products are very similar, so when the merchants buy There will be some hesitation about which one to buy.

1. Environmental protection performance: This product uses high molecular polymer silica gel electrolyte to replace sulfuric acid, which solves the problems of environmental pollution such as acid mist overflow and interface corrosion that have always existed in the production and use process. It can be used as fertilizer, pollution-free, easy to handle, and the battery grid can also be recycled and reused.

2. Charging acceptability: Charging acceptability is an important technical indicator for measuring batteries. High-energy gel batteries can be charged with 0.3-0.4CA current value, and the normal charging time is 3-4 hours, which is only 1/4 of the charging time of lead-acid batteries. It can also be quickly charged with 0.8-1.5CA current value, and the fast charging time is less than 1 hour, which has exceeded the 0.5 hour rate. During high-current charging, the high-concentration colloidal battery has no obvious temperature rise, nor will it affect the electrolyte characteristics and battery life. The fast charging characteristics of high-concentration colloidal batteries have broad application prospects for industries that require fast charging.

3. High-current discharge characteristics: Corresponding to the charging capacity, the discharge capacity of the battery is also an extremely important technical index. The shorter the time a battery with a certain rated capacity can be discharged, the stronger the discharge performance. The domestic battery discharge standard for communication is a 10-hour rate, and the power battery is a 5-hour rate. Due to the extremely small internal resistance of the electrolyte, the high-concentration colloidal battery has good high-current discharge characteristics, and can generally be discharged with a current value of 0.6-0.8CA. The short-time discharge capacity of power batteries is required to be as high as 15-30CA. Tested by the National Battery Quality Inspection Center, the 2-hour rate discharge capacity of high-energy gel batteries has reached the international advanced level.

4. Self-discharge characteristics: small self-discharge, good maintenance-free, convenient for long-term storage. Ordinary lead-acid batteries usually need to be discharged/charged for maintenance after being stored for 180 days in an environment of 20°C due to self-discharge, otherwise the battery life may be damaged. Since the internal resistance of the high-energy gel battery is only one tenth of that of the lead-acid battery, its self-discharge electrode is small and has no memory effect. It can be stored at room temperature for one year, and its capacity can still maintain 90% of the nominal capacity. These indicators are at the international advanced level.

5. Full charge and full discharge capability: High-energy gel battery has strong full charge and full discharge capability. Repeated deep charge and discharge or even full charge and discharge has little effect on the battery. The lower limit protection of 10.5V (nominal voltage 12V) can be cancelled or reduced, which is very important for power batteries. Lead-acid batteries are usually equipped with a 10.5V low-voltage protection device when in use, and cannot continue to discharge when the voltage is lower than 10.5V. This is not only because of its poor low-voltage operating characteristics, but more importantly, deep discharge will damage the plates.

6. Strong self-recovery ability: The high-energy gel battery has strong self-recovery ability, large rebound capacity, short recovery time, and can be used again after a few minutes after discharge, which is particularly advantageous for emergency use.

7. Low temperature characteristics: High-energy gel batteries can be used normally in an environment of -50°C to +50°C, while the capacity of lead-acid batteries drops sharply when used in an environment below -18°C.

8. Long service life: The service life is more than 10 years when used as a communication power source. When used as a power source, the deep cycle charge and discharge times exceed 500 times (the national standard is 350 times).

So if you are hesitant to buy a battery next time, you can compare it according to the above situation, and you can quickly choose a product that suits you. It really saves time, effort and worry.

colloid:

Advantages: The amount of electrolyte is large, and the expansion caused by thermal runaway is not easy to occur; the cycle life and float life are generally better;

Disadvantages: difficult production technology, high cost;

The lead-acid battery you mentioned refers to the AGM battery by default. Because the colloid is also lead acid.

AGM battery:

Advantages: low production technology difficulty and low cost; better charging and discharging performance;

Disadvantages: thermal runaway may occur because of too little electrolyte; water loss during overcharge will greatly shorten the battery life;

Gel battery is a lead-acid battery that adds a gelling agent to sulfuric acid to make the sulfuric acid electro-liquid into a colloidal state. The difference from conventional lead-acid batteries is not only that the electro-hydraulic is changed to a gelatinous state. For example, non-solid hydrocolloids belong to colloidal batteries from the perspective of electrochemical classification structure and characteristics. Another example is the attachment of polymer materials in the grid, commonly known as ceramic grids, which can also be regarded as the application characteristics of gel batteries. Recently, laboratories have added a targeted coupling agent to the plate formula, which greatly improves the reaction utilization rate of the plate active material. According to non-public data, it can reach a weight ratio energy level of 70wh/kg. Features:

1: The inside of the colloidal battery is mainly SiO2 porous network structure, there are a lot of tiny gaps, which can make the oxygen produced by the positive electrode of the battery migrate to the negative electrode plate smoothly, which is convenient for the negative electrode to absorb and combine; 2: The amount of acid in the colloidal battery is relatively large , So its capacity is basically the same as that of AGM battery; 3: The internal resistance of colloidal battery is large, and generally does not have good high-current discharge characteristics; 4: Heat is easy to diffuse, not easy to rise, and the probability of thermal runaway is small;

This composition is still a gel formed by sulfuric acid, water and silica. Therefore, it is still water and sulfuric acid that produce electrochemical effects. There is not much difference in the reaction process, but changes in the structure can bring many advantages. Specifically, please Mosaic netizens to introduce more.

Chinese colloidal batteries still use AGM separators. In the early days, I had to put Chinese colloidal batteries in quotation marks to distinguish them from German colloidal batteries. Later, I wrote too much and ignored them. China In addition to colloidal batteries, there are many different ways to call them. For example: "lead crystal battery", "solid battery", "silicon energy battery", "silicon energy battery"...

Mosaic netizens said that the domestic colloidal batteries are half filled when they are filled. They call themselves "semi-colloid batteries", with ordinary electrolyte in the lower part and colloid in the upper part.

The advantages of colloidal batteries are that they have good cycle life, endurance to overdischarge, long-term insufficient charge and discharge (AGM batteries are prone to vulcanization failure when used in this way), and high and low temperature performance is better than AGM. To put it bluntly, it is more resistant to abuse. I There are few domestic manufacturers of colloidal batteries for this kind of lithographic paste-coated plates.

The cost of this type of gel battery is obviously higher than that of ordinary batteries, and it is generally used by industry users.

Colloid lead-acid battery is an improvement of ordinary lead-acid battery with liquid electrolyte. It replaces sulfuric acid electrolyte with colloidal electrolyte, which is better than ordinary batteries in terms of safety, storage capacity, discharge performance and service life.

The colloidal lead-acid battery adopts a gel-like electrolyte, and there is no free liquid inside. Under the same volume, the electrolyte capacity is large, the heat capacity is large, and the heat dissipation ability is strong, which can avoid the phenomenon of thermal runaway in general batteries; The corrosion effect is weak; the concentration is uniform, and there is no electrolyte layering phenomenon.

The performance of the colloidal lead-acid battery is better than the valve-regulated sealed lead-acid battery. The colloidal lead-acid battery has stable performance, high reliability, long service life, strong adaptability to ambient temperature (high and low temperature), and long-term discharge ability. , Cycle discharge ability, deep discharge and high current discharge ability, have the advantages of overcharge and overdischarge self-protection.

The domestic colloidal lead-acid batteries used for electric bicycles are vacuum-filled in the AGM separator, and the silica gel and sulfuric acid solution are poured between the positive and negative plates of the battery. Colloidal lead-acid batteries cannot carry out oxygen circulation in the early stage of use. This is because the colloid surrounds both the positive and negative plates. Oxygen generated on the positive plate cannot diffuse to the negative plate and cannot be reduced with the active material lead on the negative plate. It can only be discharged by the exhaust valve, which is consistent with the flooded battery.

Colloid lead-acid batteries use for a period of time, the colloid begins to crack and shrink, resulting in cracks, oxygen passes through the cracks directly to the negative plate for oxygen circulation. The exhaust valve is no longer frequently opened, and the colloidal lead-acid battery is close to the sealing operation, and there is little water loss. Therefore, the main failure of electric bicycle batteries is due to the loss of water mechanism, and the use of colloidal lead-acid batteries can achieve very good results. The colloidal electrolyte solidifies the sulfuric acid electrolyte into a colloidal substance by adding a gelling agent to the electrolyte. Usually, colloidal stabilizers and compatibilizers are added to the colloidal electrolyte, and some colloidal formulations are also added to retard colloidal coagulation and retardation To facilitate colloid filling.